TR sequences
The intrinsic telomerase RNA (TR) component contains the template for nucleotide synthesis. TR contains a universal pseudoknot and a ubiquitous stem-loop junction structure [helix IV in ciliates, CR4/5 in vertebrates, three-way-junction (TWJ) in yeasts, and P6/P6.1 in filamentous fungi]. In addition to telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) binding sites, TR has species-specific protein binding moieties required for biogenesis. The most striking characteristic of TR is the astounding divergence in sequence, structure, and size, ranging from 100 nucleotides in ciliates, 400-500 nucleotides in vertebrates, and 1000-2000 nucleotides in fungi.


Below are details on the RNA component sequences, the scientific and common name where applicable, the length, the GC content, the nucleotide sequence (.seq button), the genbank accession numbers that are linked to the record at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), and the original literature citations that are linked to the published online journal. The sequences are organized by general taxonomy. The GC% content is not provided for putative/partial sequences. The GC% content has been adjusted, where necessary, to account for any adjustment to the 5' or 3' ends compared to the NCBI record, numbers in parentheses.

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  Vertebrates
Length
(nt)
GC %
Genbank ID
 
References
mammals Homo sapiens (human)
451
67.73
Tupaia glis belangeri (common tree shrew)
467
66.6
Oryctolagus cuniculus (domestic rabbit)
451
68.51
Cavia porcellus (domestic guinea pig)
421
66.27
Chinchilla brevicaudata (short-tailed chinchilla)
447
66.22
Geomys breviceps (gopher)
449
67.71
Microtus ochrogaster (prairie vole)
399
62.16
Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster)
382
65.45
Mus musculus (mouse)
397
66.75
Mus spretus (western wild mouse)
397
65.24
Mus musculus castaneus (Asian house mouse)
397
66.75
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)
388
60.82
Mustela putorius furo (domestic ferret)
443
66.37
Procyon lotor (raccoon)
444
65.77
Felis catus (cat)
446
65.47
Bos taurus (cattle)
443
65.46
Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis (barking deer)
321
AY760074 (partial sequence)
Sus scrofa (pig)
541
66.91
482
52.07
AF221942 (pseudo gene)
Suncus murinus (Asian house shrew)
451
66.3
Equus caballus (domestic horse)
443
70.2
Dasypus novemcinctus (armadillo)
450
66.44
Dasyurus hallucatus (northern quoll)
508
73.23
Elephas maximus (Asian elephant)
454
67.18
Trichechus manatus (Caribbean manatee)
470
64.26
birds Gallus gallus (chicken)
465
76.77
Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (macaw)
434
71.89
  Chelydra serpentina (snapping turtle)
410
72.44
amphibians Bombina japonica (toad)
412
49.03
Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog)
449
58.57
Ceratophrys ornata (ornate horned frog)
405
56.79
Pyxicephalus adspersus (bull frog)
397
59.19
Dermophis mexicanus (Mexican caecilian)
445
59.78
Herpele squalostoma (Congo caecilians)
444
60.36
Typhlonectes natans (Rio Cauca caecilian)
443
57.79
fish Oryzias latipes (Medaka)
312
51.28
Nothobranchius furzeri (turquoise killifish)
133
FJ167673 (GRZ) (partial)
Hartmann et al, 2009
133
FJ167674 (MZM-0403) (partial)
Gasterosteus aculeatus (stickleback)
348
54.02
Takifugu rubripes (Fugu fish)
325
53.54
Tetraodon nigroviridis (green puffer fish)
328
55.49
Danio rerio (zebrafish)
317
48.90
Rhizoprionodon porosus (sharpnose shark)
548
63.32
Mustelus canis (smooth dogfish shark)
559
64.58
Dasyatis sabina (Atlantic stingray)
478
60.25
Chen et al, 2000
Rhinoptera bonasus (cownose ray)
491
59.27
Chen et al, 2000

  Invertebrates
Length
(nt)
GC %
Genbank ID
 
References
  Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (purple sea urchin)
535
41.50

  Fungi
Length
(nt)
GC %
Genbank ID
 
References
  Saitoella complicata
JX173807
  Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast)
1207
35.63
EU239354
Saccharomycotina Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) S288
1158
35.84
NC_001134 (11-1168)
Saccharomyces pastorianus (lager yeast)
1196
37.79
Saccharomyces kudriavzevii
1215
36.57
Saccharomyces cariocanus
1163
35.54
Saccharomyces bayanus
1219
36.75
Saccharomyces paradoxus
1161
35.06
Saccharomyces mikatae
1215
35.14
Kluyveromyces lactis
1326
40.27
Kluyveromyces wickerhamii
1036
38.80
Kluyveromyces nonfermentans
928
38.58
Kluyveromyces marxianus
1516
37.86
AY151279 (118-1633)
Kluyveromyces dobzhanskii
1316
41.64
Kluyveromyces aestuarii
933
37.83
Candida albicans
1544
35.30
Candida glabrata
~2030
NC_006032 (668084-670574)
Sordariomycetes Neurospora crassa
2049
Neurospora discreta
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Neurospora tetrasperma
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Sordaria macrospora
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Podospora anserina
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Colletotrichum graminicola (Glomerella graminicola)
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Colletotrichum higginsianum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Fusarium graminearum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Fusarium verticillioides
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Fusarium oxysporum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Metarhizium acridum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Metarhizium anisopliae
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Verticillium albo-atrum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Verticillium dahilae
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Trichoderma atroviride
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Trichoderma reesei
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Trichoderma virens
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Acremonium alcalophilum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Nectria haematococca
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Chaetomium globosum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Sporotrichum thermophile
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Cryphonectria parasitica
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Thielavia terrestris
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Magnaporthe oryzae
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Magnaporthe poae
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Gaeumannomyces graminis
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Epichloe festucae
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
  Geomyces destructans
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Botrytis cinerea
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Sclerotina sclerotiorum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
  Cladonia grayi
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Xanthoria parietina
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
  Aspergillus nidulans (Emericella nidulans)
1584
Aspergillus fischeri (Neosartorya fischeri)
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Aspergillus fumigatus
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Aspergillus clavatus
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Aspergillus terreus
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Aspergillus aculeatus
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Aspergillus flavus
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Aspergillus oryzae
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Aspergillus niger
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Aspergillus carbonarius
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Penicillium chrysogenum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Penicillium marneffei
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Blastomyces dermatidis
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Histoplasma capsulatum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Coccidioides immitis
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Coccidioides posadasii
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Uncinocarpus reesii
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Microsporum gypseum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Microsporum canis
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Trichophyton rubrum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Trichophyton equinum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Trichophyton tonsurans
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Arthroderma benhamiae
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Trichophyton verrucosum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Talaromyces stipitatus
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
  Stagonospora nodorum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Pyrenophora tritici-repentis
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Pyrenophora teres f. teres
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Setosphaeria trucica
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Cochliobolus heterostrophus
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Alternaria brassicicola
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Leptosphaeria maculans
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Mycosphaerella graminicola (Zymoseptoria tritici)
2425
Mycosphaerella fijiensis
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Septoria musiva
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Dothistroma septosporum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Hysterium pulicare
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Rhytidhysteron rufulum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
  Tuber melanosporum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
Phymatotrichum omnivorum
(no Genbank ID available)(predicted)
* The Genbank records have been adjusted for the 5' and 3' ends, numbers in parentheses.

  Plants
Length
(nt)
GC %
Genbank ID
References
  Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress)
268
46.6
MN701893 (AB646770.1)
  Daucus carota
276
47.5
BK011296
  Chrysanthemum seticuspe
283
45.9
BK011297
  Echium plantagineum
247
49.0
BK011298
  Aethionema arabicum
267
49.4
BK011299
  Arabidopsis halleri
269
45.0
BK011300
  Arabidopsis lyrata
267
43.4
BK011301
  Arabis alpina
260
43.5
BK011302
  Arabis montbretiana
271
42.4
BK011303
  Arabis nordmanniana
268
45.9
BK011304
  Barbarea vulgaris
265
45.7
BK011305
  Boechera stricta
267
46.8
BK011306
  Brassica cretica
275
51.3
BK011307
  Brassica juncea
268
45.9
BK011308
  Brassica rapa
269
49.8
BK011309
  Capsella bursa-pastoris
271
47.2
BK011310
  Conringia planisiliqua
265
46.8
BK011311
  Crucihimalaya himalaica
265
48.3
BK011312
  Euclidium syriacum
238
46.6
BK011313
  Eutrema heterophyllum
231
45.5
BK011314
  Eutrema salsugineum
262
47.7
BK011315
  Eutrema yunnanense
264
47.7
BK011316
  Leavenworthia alabamica
278
46.8
BK011317
  Raphanus raphanistrum
255
48.2
BK011318
  Raphanus sativus
255
47.8
BK011319
  Schrenkiella parvula
268
46.3
BK011320
  Sisymbrium irio
269
46.5
BK011321
  Tarenaya hassleriana
261
54.4
BK011322
  Thlaspi arvense
265
46.0
BK011323
  Beta vulgaris
279
50.5
BK011324
  Cucurbita argyrosperma
249
49.4
BK011325
  Pisum sativum
266
47.0
BK011326
  Casuarina equisetifolia
254
55.5
BK011327
  Coffea eugenioides
266
53.8
BK011328
  Olea europaea var. sylvestris
256
44.9
BK011329
  Caryocar brasiliense
269
56.1
BK011330
  Manihot esculenta
272
54.8
BK011331
  Populus simonii
274
54.4
BK011332
  Viola pubescens
259
55.2
BK011333
  Aquilaria agallochum
277
53.8
BK011334
  Aquilaria sinensis
266
54.5
BK011335
  Corchorus capsularis
270
52.2
BK011336
  Corchorus olitorius
268
52.2
BK011337
  Durio zibethinus
263
56.7
BK011338
  Gossypioides kirkii
235
44.7
BK011339
  Gossypium arboreum
246
48.0
BK011340
  Gossypium australe
275
46.5
BK011341
  Gossypium thurberi
249
45.0
BK011342
  Kokia drynarioides
236
44.9
BK011343
  Theobroma cacao
264
54.9
BK011344
  Eucalyptus camaldulensis
249
61.0
BK011345
  Eucalyptus melliodora
250
60.4
BK011346
  Aristotelia chilensis
252
52.8
BK011347
  Cephalotus follicularis
263
52.1
BK011348
  Macadamia integrifolia
266
48.5
BK011349
  Rosa chinensis
261
55.6
BK011350
  Atalantia buxifolia
262
56.1
BK011351
  Azadirachta indica
259
52.9
BK011352
  Citrus hindsii
259
54.1
BK011353
  Citrus clementina
256
55.1
BK011354
  Xanthoceras sorbifolium
249
55.0
BK011355
  Cuscuta australis
251
55.8
BK011356
  Nicotiana rustica
249
43.0
BK011357
  Nicotiana tabacum
247
44.1
BK011358
  Solanum tuberosum
259
49.4
BK011359
  Musa balbisiana
275
51.3
BK011360
  Posidonia oceanica
246
46.3
BK011361
  Calamus simplicifolius
276
45.7
BK011362
  Amborella trichopoda
281
47.3
BK011363
  Liriodendron chinense
279
49.5
BK011364
  equoia sempervirens
303
50.2
BK011365
  Larix sibirica
350
48.9
BK011366
  Picea glauca
347
48.4
BK011367
  Picea abies
349
48.4
BK011368
  Pinus lambertiana
344
48.3
BK011369
  Pinus taeda
346
48.6
BK011370
  Pseudotsuga menziesii
348
49.7
BK011371
  Isoetes echinospora
280
48.9
BK011372
  Selaginella kraussiana
296
53.7
BK011373
  Selaginella bryopteris
305
55.1
BK011374
  Selaginella tamariscina
300
56.7
BK011375

  Ciliates
Length
(nt)
GC %
Genbank ID
References
Oligohymenophea Glaucoma chattoni
161
39.75
(no Genbank ID available)
Glaucoma sp. ME60q
162
38.27
Tetrahymena thermophila
159
33.96
Greider and Blackburn, 1989
Tetrahymena malaccensis
159
33.96
(no Genbank ID available)
Romero et al, 1991
Tetrahymena pyriformis
159
33.33
(no Genbank ID available)
Tetrahymena vorax
158
34.81
Tetrahymena borealis
157
35.03
Tetrahymena silvana
150
34.00
Tetrahymena australis
159
33.33
Tetrahymena pigmentosa
154
35.71
(no Genbank ID available)
Tetrahymena hyperangularis
153
35.95
(no Genbank ID available)
Tetrahymena capricornis
156
35.90
Tetrahymena hegewischi
155
37.42
(no Genbank ID available)
Tetrahymena paravorax
147
40.14
Colpidium striatum
161
38.51
Colpidium colpoda
157
37.58
Colpidium campylum
161
38.51
Paramecium tetraurelia
205
36.10
Paramecium primaurelia
205
36.59
205
29.27
U45435 (pseudo gene)
Paramecium multimicronucleatum
201
34.33
Paramecium caudatum
203
35.96
Spirotrich Euplotes aediculatus
189
37.57
Euplotes eurystomus
189
37.04
Euplotes crassus
191
40.31
Oxytricha nova (Sterkiella nova)
190
47.37
Oxytricha trifallax (Sterkiella histriomuscorum)
186
46.77
Stylonychia mytilis
189
45.50
Stylonychia lemnae
189
46.03

  Other Protists
Length
(nt)
GC %
Genbank ID
References
  Plasmodium falciparum (malaria parasite)
1084
AL929357 (96976-98058)
(putative)
Plasmodium vivax (human parasite)
1304
(PlasmoDB) (putative)
Chakrabarti et al, 2007
Plasmodium knowlesi (monkey parasite)
1254
(PlasmoDB) (putative)
Chakrabarti et al, 2007
Plasmodium berghei (rodent parasite)
889
(PlasmoDB) (putative)
Chakrabarti et al, 2007
Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (rodent parasite)
827
(PlasmoDB) (putative)
Chakrabarti et al, 2007
Plasmodium yoelii yoelii (rodent parasite)
885
(PlasmoDB) (putative)
Chakrabarti et al, 2007
Plasmodium gallinaceum (chicken parasite)
716
(PlasmoDB) (putative)
Chakrabarti et al, 2007

  Viruses
Length
(nt)
GC %
Genbank ID
References
  MDV-1 (Marek's disease alphaherpesvirus 1) RB1B
442
73.53
AF331499 (160-601)
MDV-2 (Marek's disease alphaherpesvirus 2) GA
446
72.65
AF147806 (246-691)
Md5
442
73.53
AF243438 (1676-2117)
RM-1
442
73.53
EF526179 (3436-3877)
(reverse complement)